Coal Buyers (imported coal) are divided into three categories:
1. Buyers of imported steam coal / thermal coal
Thermal coal refers to the coal used for thermal power generation, and buyers import thermal coal generally used for the purpose of power generation, locomotive propulsion, boiler combustion, etc.
2. Buyers of imported coking coal
coal buyers import coking coal in the international market mainly for the production of coke, which is then used in the steel industry. More than 90% of the world’s coke production is used for blast furnace iron making.
3. Buyers of imported anthracite coal
Anthracite, commonly known as white coal or red coal, has a calorific value of about 6000-6500 Kcal/kg. The main applications of anthracite lump coal purchased by coal buyers are chemical fertilizers (nitrogen fertilizer, synthetic ammonia), ceramics, manufacturing forging and other industries; Smokeless pulverized coal is mainly used in metallurgical industry for blast furnace injection.
Quality Requirements of Chinese Coal Buyers for Imported Coal:
1) Buyer Requirements for Imported Steam Coal
According to the type, steam coal mainly includes lignite, long flame coal, non-stick coal, poor coal; gas coal and a small amount of anthracite coal. Steam coal is the coal with the largest proportion and the widest use range.
Calorific value (Qnet, ar) ≥ 16.5 MJ/kg,
Ash content (Ad) ≤ 20%,
Sulfur content (St, d) ≤ 1%.
Mercury (Hgd) ≤ 0.6 μ g/g,
Arsenic (Asd) ≤ 80 μ g/g,
Phosphorus (Pd) ≤ 0.15%,
Chlorine (Cld) ≤ 0.3%,
Fluorine (Fd) ≤ 200 μ g/g.
2) Buyer Requirements for Imported Coking Coal
Coking coal includes six sub-categories: gas coal, gas fat coal, 1/3 coking coal, fat coal, coking coal and lean coal.
Calorific value (Qnet, AR) ≥ 18MJ/kg,
Ash content (Ad) ≤ 30%,
Sulphur content (St, d)≤ 2%.
3) Buyer Requirements for Imported Anthracite Coal
Anthracite coal is a hard, dense and high-gloss coal product. Anthracite is a hard, dense and high-gloss coal species. Among all coal species, anthracite has the highest carbon content and the lowest impurity content, although it has a low calorific value.
Calorific value (QNET, AR) ≥ 18MJ/kg,
Ash content (AD) ≤ 30%,
Sulphur content (ST, D)≤ 2%.
Flow direction area of imported thermal coal
For a long time, in China’s developed southeast coastal areas, energy resources are relatively scarce, and the demand for thermal coal is relatively strong. Thermal coal in northern China is its primary source of procurement. However, due to China’s transportation bottleneck restriction and the fluctuation of domestic coal prices, the demand for imported thermal coal in these areas is gradually increasing.
China’s imported thermal coal mainly flows to six provinces, including Guangdong, Fujian, Guangxi, Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Shandong, which are basically eastern and southern coastal provinces. The imports of thermal coal in these provinces account for 82% of China’s total imports of thermal coal.
More than 60% of the commercial coal consumed in China every year is used for power generation and heating in thermal power plants, and industrial boilers and kilns and civil use account for about 20%; More than 800 million tons of coal are used for coal chemical industry, of which more than 600 million tons of coking coal are used every year. However, in the process of use, no matter it is used for power or chemical coal, we must ensure its efficient and clean utilization.
Different industrial uses have different requirements for the basic characteristics of coal. Therefore, the raw coal should be washed to remove most ash and sulfur, phosphorus, arsenic, chlorine, fluorine, mercury and other trace harmful elements. In addition, deep desulfurization and denitration should be realized according to different uses of coal, and the air pollution caused by dust and flue gas should be minimized, so as to truly achieve the goals of clean and efficient utilization of coal, energy saving and emission reduction. Therefore, in the key areas of clean and efficient utilization of coal, energy conservation and emission reduction, Its main direction is to solve the desulfurization and denitration of power coal such as power generation, reduce the emission of harmful substances such as dust and greenhouse gas CO2, and the clean and efficient utilization, energy-saving and emission reduction of coal chemical industry such as coking and gasification and coal-to-oil also need to be strengthened and solved.
Thus, a full understanding of the fundamental properties of different types of coal in China can provide a good basis for value-grading, clean and efficient utilization, and energy conservation.